Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a frequently performed procedure in support of major cardiac surgery such as coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), valve replacement, and surgical repair of structural heart and great vessel defects. Approximately 290,000 major procedures which would require CPB were performed in the U.S. in 2015 as documented in the Society of Thoracic Surgery (STS) Adult Cardiac Surgery Database. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), or extracorporeal life support (ECLS), are similar procedures which use mechanical devices to support heart or lung function during cardiopulmonary failure leading to organ recovery or replacement. ECMO and ECLS are viewed as temporary with patients receiving mechanical support for days to months. This document provides an overview of these products and current evidence regarding their use.