Cardiac Valves – Mechanical and Tissue

Bioprosthetic heart valves are made from human cadaveric or animal tissue (bovine, porcine, or equine) and are used to replace diseased or damaged heart valves. Mechanical valves are constructed from man-made materials such as stainless steel, carbon, ceramic, tungsten, or titanium and are also used to replace diseased or damaged heart valves. The majority of procedures are to replace an aortic valve, followed by mitral, and pulmonic. Allografts are veins, arteries, and heart valves harvested from human cadavers. Valve repair devices are aortic, mitral, or tricuspid annuloplasty rings implanted to repair or support native heart valves and includes instrumentation to perform the surgical repair. This document provides an overview of these products and current evidence regarding their use.

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